Telling the aware what they already know.

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson was accused of undermining his government’s vaccination program after he told Brits that those fully inoculated against Covid-19 could still not meet indoors as they were not completely protected. Apr 2, 2021 12:46 RT

I burst out laughing when this was ‘reveled’  by RT.
BOJO has a habit of being an idiot, although stating that may have been the first ‘non lie’ he has ever spoken.

It’s always been acknowledged that the current vaccines are not foolproof and, at best, they will only reduce the effects of COVID to a level that will not need hospital care.

Which is why we continue to observe basic self protection by masking and gloving up, social distancing, generally being careful about what we touch,  where we go, and washing hands.

Something we’ve agreed will become a normal part of life.

As for him releasing the masses onto the streets?
Yet another masterclass of populist politics that will kill many and trigger the third (or is it forth) wave by summer.

The worst bit about all this is I would love to evacuate away from UK politics. Only there is nowhere safe (COVID and politics free) on the planet that I’d like to move to who would let a couple of English ‘under training wrinklies’ (with little money) retire to.


HEPA filters unsafe for DIY face masks MYTH!

There are video’s going around saying DO NOT USE HEPA VACUUM BAGS for making DIY PPE masks as they can contain fiberglass and one even claimed Asbestos.

While that may be true about fiberglass in some filters used in the automotive or furnace filters, vacuum cleaner bags DON’T use fiberglass and definitely NOT asbestos.

HEPA came about in vacuum cleaners because it helped allergy sufferers so using something that could spew particles in to the air, especially irritants, glass, and ASBESTOS, isn’t exactly a good idea.

HEPA, is an acronym for “High Efficiency Particulate Air” or “High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance.”There are two main types detailed below.

The main differences between HEPA-type and True HEPA (the gold standard of filtration) filter are the filtration efficiency.

In general, HEPA-type filter has a 99% efficiency rate of capturing particles as small as 2 microns. True HEPA filter up the game with a better 99.97% efficiency rate at particles as small as 0.3 microns.

Numbers, and VERY small numbers, always confuse me so I’ll try to explain them.

2 microns is 0.002 of a mm. Which is “small”.
0.3 microns is 0.0003 of a mm.
Which is soooooo tiny it manages to stop most particles.

Only Corvid-19 is way smaller than that!!!
“Mr. Average” coronavirus particles is around 125 nm or 0.000125 of a mm.
Does that mean it passes straight through a HEPA FILTER?
In theory YES, if the HEPA was a single layer.
Only they aren’t. They are LAYERED!
So in real life, YES they do stop most viruses.
HEPA filters can catch nearly 100% of 0.0001mm ultra-fine particles but are only TESTED to 0.0003 of a mm by HEPA standards.

So does that render you completely safe from the virus?
Nope, there is no such thing as being 100% safe!
Especially if you are doing table top PPE like we are.

This virus is transmitted as a particle carried by moisture in a person’s cough. So you touch something that has been coughed on – it’s on your hands.
Or, if droplets get into your eyes, you’ve got it.
Or, if you rub your now contaminated hands on your face or rub your eyes,
Or, if you eat something without washing your hands, it can get into you.

So why bother with a mask? Seriously?
You could for instance cover your eyes wearing wrap round glasses,
is a huge one as adjusting face masks is so easy to do without thinking about things.
Wearing impervious gloves
helps, but above all that:


Don’t just rely on alcohol rubs or no soap hand gels.
The why is soap bursts the individual virus’s protective shell.
Clean surfaces regularly with disinfectant or even soapy water.
We use “baby bleach” (aka Milton) in a fine spray bottle (mainly because I trust bleach) but normal kitchen and washroom cleaners are said to be just as effective. CAUTION ELECTRICITY AND LIQUIDS DON’T MIX”

We also wipe down stuff you bring into your home and, where appropriate, discard external packaging.

Do I need to say don’t bleach your fruit and veg? I hope not!
We do however run it under the tap, pat dry, and leave to dry before racking it.

Why do all this?
A blob of virus will survive well on hard and soft surfaces.
Some ex-spurts saying in ideal conditions, over 72 hours.
Impervious surfaces being the worst culprits i.e. metal, plastics, glass.
The why is the virus needs it’s bubble of water to survive and once dry, it dies.

This is all CBRN Decontamination 101 folks.
Let alone good housekeeping.

So where am I getting all this data from?
The Internet, NASA, CDC, WHO, NHS, and official bodies in the medical world who are falling over themselves to inform you.

Vacuum cleaner bag science is extensive as well as is the details about HEPA filtration. A few universities have done studies on DIY PPE recently. This is all part of researching your subject and something I did a lot of before starting to make masks.

Yet, having said all that, being a prepper I had laid in a stock of FFP3 masks.
That’s equivalent to N98 in US terms.
We use them when in enclosed spaces as social distancing is NOT the UK’s sheeple way of doing things. Stupidity they do well. Anything else seems to much bother and involves thinking.

And finally.
Distance is king in combat and this is a fight only against a much more cold blooded killer. So, keep your distance to more than social spacing (2m), cover up, wash often, and PLEASE download a basic guide to CBRN and decontamination.

And yes, I’m still going to be making DIY masks as the proper PPE has been price gouged above our means and largely unavailable at this time.

Will they work as well as the “proper gear”.
Probably not but something is better than NOTHING!

As always, don’t take my word for anything.
Do your own research as that’s the responsible thing to do.

Like Rats? I don’t.

CAUTION. Long article so stock up on tea and biscuits.

Them damn things are everywhere and we’ve had the black, brown and the weirdest of dappled thing which executed a perfect back flip tucked double somersault as it thought it could run along the fence at the end of the garden with immunity from prosecution but caught a 22 behind its ear.

I loath them but know that for every one you see, the experts guess that there are at least ten watching doesn’t exactly surprise me. Probably the worse thing for me is their ability to survive on stuff that would make a goat puke and that they thrive in disaster, let alone war. That and how easily they grow immune to rat bait (poison), although that is a direct result in not leaving the bait down long enough to kill all comers!

The health dangers they pose are well-known but how many prep for them?
Do you know how to trap them, how to drown them, what to do without poisons?
After all shooting them (although fun and deeply satisfying) is a waste of ammo and even with a 22, that ‘fun’ can led to unwanted attention.

I’m a fan of snare and dangle when it comes to austere trapping rats as it occasionally catches something edible and sort of safe. but what are you facing aka know your enemy.

Teeth that can chew though steel, carriers of disease which demand antibiotic treatments which means, in an austere scenario, exposure to their urine, waste (poo), oil from their fur, ticks and fleas they can carry, or by consuming ‘nibbled’ or contaminated food could be fatal.

An adult can weigh 1 to 2 pounds, and a body that can grow to 10-14 inches long excluding the tail. Having said that they can squeeze through the smallest of holes.
Why work easily in both the day and night.
Add something that is strongly Neophobic (an inbuilt fear of anything new) and trapping them ain’t easy.

This is no push over folks!

So what’s the common things to think about to discourage them?
One of the usual is to keep clean, uncluttered accommodation.
Keep your store rooms secure and contents in glass or steel bins.
Never leave food stuff just lying around.
Clean up and put away when preparing and cooking.
Wash raw or foraged foodstuff before preparation.
Eat then, not later, and clear away before carrying on your day.
Transport waste WAY AWAY from where you are living before going to sleep or when leaving your shelter for ANY length of time.
Difficult as it might seem, protect your water sources and storage.
That also includes washing bottles AND CANS before opening and drinking from them.

It’s said rats won’t attack you. WRONG!
Cornered, or you stationary for too long, or when asleep, and you are fair game to a rat.

First Aid When Bitten or Scratched.
Control the bleeding and clean the wound with soap and warm water.
Clean inside the wound, being sure to rinse away all the soap.
Cover the wound with a clean, dry dressing.
You can put antibiotic ointment on the wound before covering.
Rat bites often lead to infection.
If the injury is on a finger, remove all rings from the injured finger before it swells.
Watch for these signs of infection: Redness, Swelling, Localized Heat, and Weeping pus.
If infected think Antibiotics.

So what can you catch?

  • Streptobacillary rat bite fever.
    Symptoms usually occur 3-10 days after an infected rat bite.
    Muscle ache, vomiting, joint pain, headache, fever, and rash are common symptoms of .
  • Spirillary rat bite fever.
    Symptoms may occur one to three weeks after an infected rat bite.
    Repetitive fever, an ulcer at the site of the bite, swelling, swollen lymph nodes and rash.
  • Leptospirosis and Hantavirus. The saliva of rats carries these two.
  • Tetanus infections.
    Cause. From a scratch, bite, cut, or graze, and contact from anything dirty, which may be what a rat has been foraging through.
    Symptoms of tetanus appear anytime from a few days to several weeks.
    The average incubation is seven to 10 days
    Common symptoms include:
    Spasms and stiffness in your jaw muscles, Stiff neck and abdominal muscles, Difficulty swallowing, and Random pain.
  • Plague. From what it carries in the form of ticks and fleas.
    Bubonic Plague.
  • Sudden onset of fever and chills, Headache, Fatigue or malaise, Muscle aches. Visually – swollen and tender lymph nodes — called buboes — in the groin, armpits or neck.
    Septicemic plague occurs when plague bacteria multiply in your bloodstream.
    Symptoms: Fever and chills, Extreme weakness, Abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting.
    Bleeding from your mouth, nose or rectum, or under your skin. Shock!
    Blackening and death of tissue (gangrene) in your extremities, most common in fingers, toes and nose. BARRIER NURSING.
    Pneumonic plague affects the lungs and it’s airborne (droplet infectious).
    Signs and symptoms can begin within a few hours after infection.
    Difficulty breathing, Nausea and vomiting, High fever, Headache, Weakness, Chest pain, Cough, with bloody mucus (sputum). Respiratory failure and shock within two days of infection. FULL BARRIER, respirators, the works.
    Needs to be treated with antibiotics within a day after signs and symptoms first appear. Or it is likely to be fatal.

You’ll probably notice I haven’t listed treatments.
But you all have a copy of “Where there are no Doctors” to hand or an equivalent. Haven’t you?

So having scared you onto the toilet for a long sit, lets look at what rat ‘sign’ looks like.
They usually run along the same tracks leaving a telltale smear over time.
Their footprint is a four-toed front and five-toed back footprint.

Feet and that loathsome tail marks.
Tracks will have signs of gnawing along those tracks. (DIY Teeth Care)
Not forgetting rat scat and urine scent marking stains (Don’t sniff or touch!).
Scat is skinny pellets, usually about 10 mm long and 3 mm across but the size will vary.
Rounded tips. Fresh dark brown, but they get lighter with age.

PPE for rats.
Whoops, I meant what you should have when dealing with rats.
Gloves and HEAVY DUTY TYPE. Think welders grade, long wrist cuffs.
I also wear a pair of nitrile med.inspection gloves underneath as rat piss can soak through leather. Me, paranoid? You think!
A good quality FFP3 / N95 or N100 OIL RESISTANT mask.
Safety glasses, snug fitting wrap round.
When working in dusty conditions, contaminated material in the eyes is rather like mainlining bacteria into you.
BOOTS, rigger boots preferred. Steels with instep safety.
Why? Stepping on a nail could inject their ‘product’ into your foot.
Overalls, I use disposable hooded type. After all what’s a few dollars over your health.
I also tape the overalls to my boots and gloves. That’s not so much to stop the rats looking for nuts, but dust can reach you in a windy hazardous scenario.
A pair of tongs and a hammer handle.
NEVER pick up a rat, dead or alive with your hands.
They can be stunned by pellets or slugs and awake in your grasp.
They also twitch and can force-ably defecate and urinate in their death throes.
The hammer handle? A secondary wack on their head can save you from a stunned rat.
Lastly (but optional) Get your tetanus booster updated.

The only thing I haven’t talked about in-depth is trapping.
If you are a fortress type prepper, you’ll probably have traps as part of your inventory.
If you aren’t ‘home based’, you may have to improvise.
I’ll make a few traps up and photograph them. They all work although farm rats can get BIG!
If you cage trap, to kill them, DROWN THEM overnight. Only remember the water will be bio hazardous to you after their long soak.
If they are ‘trap dead’, burn the carcasses. Rats will eat rats.
Think of them like politicians and leave nothing for the next generation to feed off.

1300 words, whoops sorry, but they do present a clear and present danger to the survivor.

Dirty Hospitals

More than 3 million operations and cancer treatments a year in England may become life-threatening without antibiotics. Public Health England warned that cases of antibiotic-resistant blood infections have risen by more than a third in just four years.

Probably sepsis being the rising star in hospitals.

Truth is if you enter an NHS hospital you will be exposed to all sorts of pathogens before you even sit down! Then, on sitting down, will bring you in to contact with droplet infections from the furniture, let alone the other people present, let alone opening doors, and not forgetting the biggest sin bin of the lot, their public toilets.

Only it doesn’t stop there.
Once on the wards, it takes an exceptional hospital to have a clean floor, washing facilities, and common rooms. Nurses are chasing their tails all day coming into contact with everyone increasing the danger of cross infections. Few wear gloves as part of their duties, those who do never seem to change those gloves as they wander around!

As for operating theaters?
You get wheeled there though open corridors, into a multi-use room, using instruments that have been ‘sterilized’ again, and again, so you’ve got to be wondering just when the time limit for reuse is ever reached!
Once out of the recovery room (never a ‘nice place’) you get wheeled back through those same corridors into the ward.

Only getting a dressing changed on the ward is fraught with danger.
An example. I saw a man having a shoulder dressing changed while a cleaner was DUSTING the curtain rail he was sat alongside.
Airborne dust mites plain to see in the sunshine.
One duster, the whole ward.
I stopped a doctor from examining a wound on me because he hadn’t washed his hands, let alone donned gloves, before touching me. There was an uproar about that too!

Bottom line? If you don’t have to go into these bio-hazardous buildings don’t.
Your home is probably cleaner and safer than the hospitals.
Hell I’ve been in military receiving stations in tents, and veterinary surgeries that work cleaner than most NHS hospitals do.

But is this purely the fault of bad management, under funding, or just shit standards?
Not entirely.
Antibiotic development is practically ZERO nowadays.
The money is in others drugs like statins and whatever else the medical world’s ‘must have’ money maker is. So actually the fault (if it can be apportioned on anyone) is Big Pharma and their profit margins.

Only something can be done about that.
For instance.
What if pharmaceutical firms could only trade in the UK or other ‘enlightened countries’ if it developed one new antibiotic every year?
A firm doing that would clean up against the opposition in quick time.
Thus you’re back into a competitive world forced to churn out new more practical drugs. That alone would produce new antibiotics at a faster rate than ever before.

Only that would take strong political will to enforce.
Politicians, strength of will, and who actually look after the people?
Na, nice thought but it’ll never happen.
Why? Big Pharma, like big business, own the politicians.


Losing Another

How will you handle losing another in a survival situation, especially someone close? From experience I know it’s more of a mental problem with that sometimes causing physical issues.

There are three major considerations:-
The Mental issues, Disposal of the cadaver, and Moving on.

Note:- Throughout this post I refer to a cadaver NOT a body, a partner, friend, lover, or spouse. There is a reason for this. The deeper you relate to the person, the more difficult it is to deal with their remains.

  • The Mental Issues

Ever been smacked in the stomach by a sledgehammer?
That’s how someone once described the hurt they felt.
You may experience all kinds emotions, from shock or anger to disbelief, self-doubt, and profound sadness.
Those sorts of emotion can also make it difficult to sleep, which is the main reason for disruption of your physical health, cause eating disorders i.e. too much or too little, or simply disable your ability to think straight.
Plus there is ‘survivor guilt’.
The ‘why them and not me’ bit which may cause a person so much self-doubt or remorse that they lose the will to carry on and, if unchecked, can lead to depression.
That’s the last thing you need when dealing with a survival scenario.

Revenge can get to be an issue, and it’s a dangerous issue.
If your loss was by the hand of another, would you avenge them?
Only would the chance of your death actually achieve anything?
Remember, revenge is a dish best served cold.
Something an angry mind may not be able to handle that notion.
If you are left on your own be careful that rage doesn’t override your common sense.

You need to understand that what has happened is PAINFUL AND REAL, and as such could be destructive unless you release what is pent-up inside of you, inside your mind.
So if you feel like expressing that pain, let it out BUT UNDER CONTROL. Understand too that everyone is different and what you are feeling will be unique to you. My advice is to ignore the “stiff upper lip” bit, the “suck it up” macho peer pressure some will offer as advice. It’s that sort of B.S. that can make PTSD worse.

The other main problem is if it was only you and them.
Grief shared and support from others is helpful, but being on your own can magnify the feelings immensely without some form of ‘moderating’ influence.
That can be destructive so recognise what is going on and LOOK AFTER YOU! Splurge a bit, pamper yourself, but above all SLEEP!

There are many PHYSICAL effects of grief.
The worst of all INSOMNIA. Why worst?
Because depriving your body of sleep can make both mental and physical conditions worse like sickness, a lowered immunity, weakness, poor judgement, weight fluctuations, aches and pains, and can trigger depression which may affect the will to carry on.

Seen that, been there, but you’ve got to acknowledge that although you hurt and are maybe mentally shattered, the best way forward is to HONOUR THE DEAD by not giving in. Especially if they gave their life so you can live.

  • The Disposal issues.

If you have to leave another, you’re going to have to satisfy yourself, and maybe the authorities, that what you did was correct and proper.
The authorities will be looking at what you did  anyway.
Maybe not immediately but that’s not the point.
The questions they will be asking may include:-

  1. Were your actions appropriate for the situation you were in?
  2. Were you trying to hide something (crime)?
  3. Did you accurately journal all the facts including what you did with their belongings?
  4. Were there any witnesses to what happened.
  5. Have you identified the grave or at least tagged the cadaver and did you record its position.

All of this may seem a little stupid if TEOTWAWKI has occurred but remember this. Just because the world AS YOU KNOW IT ended, it will still be there, and AFTERWARDS others may hold you accountable for your actions.

Body (cadaver) disposal. (Derived from WHO guidelines).
Lets get past the one thing that troubles many.
If death came from trauma, you are unlikely to pick up a contagion (which can be biological or chemical) from a cadaver unless it is disposed of incorrectly.
One other thing.
The person who died has moved onto a better place.
What you are going to do is hazardous waste disposal.
Nothing more, nothing less.

However if death came from a contagion, WATCH OUT!
With that in mind, it’s would be safer to just walk away and relocate.
If that is not possible, you will need to work under full barrier protection to the guidelines the WHO used in the Ebola scare (That equipment and process isn’t infallible). Even then it may not be able to cope with chemical contaminates.

As for that person’s kit and belongings? Don’t chance it.
Anything that was biologically or chemically initiated will need to be cleansed. To do may expose you to unseen dangers. In an austere environment, unless you KNOW you can cope with this, and are fully equipped, it’s best to leave things alone.

The physical disposal.

If not disposed of correctly, a cadaver may:-
Attract scavengers, act as a trail that trackers can follow, pollute a water course or a well, and spread contagion as insect carriers leave the cadaver looking for new hosts.

Keep the burial site a minimum of 50 meters from the nearest water source and 500 meters from the nearest housing.

Tag the cadaver with its name, DOB if known, what killed them, and the date and time of death. Cover the plastic covered cadaver with at least a meter of soil which will need a hole 1.5 meter deep minimum. Incidentally that’s a lot of earth to move.
With only a meter of earth on top of a body, the possibility of disinterment by scavengers is a real one. Some will cover the grave site with stone. Only you will need lots of stone for that to be effective.

The only other field expedient method is cremation.
BUT it will take a lot of fuel. It’s very hard to burn a cadaver, especially one you shouldn’t be near because of a contagion or poison. Plus heat may cause poisons to reactivate. Once again, if practical, I suggest you just walk away.

  • How you move on.

Distance is king in combat and distance helps with dealing with loss.
The manner of death will affect your next actions.
Death by trauma is a clear-cut thing and you only need to get past the social, religious, and cultural taboo’s of dividing up their equipment including clothing.
If someone wants a keepsake then let them take it.
It can help people to cope emotionally.

Finally there is any number of ways this can go.
Use the loss and let it be a learning experience is best.
If it generates anger and a thirst for revenge, that can be counter productive to survival. As said, revenge is a dish best served cold.

I am reminded by something a combat vet once said.
It has served me well.
Nobody dies if someone remembers them.
Once dead, just dispose of the meat, and remember the person.

CBRN in all it’s gory bits.

I am going to be concentrating on how we as a couple are going to survive the first few hours of  chemical, the fourteen days for nukes, and probably more than thirty days after a biological incident.

In short the CBRN of war and terrorism PLUS industrial accidents..

CBRN? Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Warfare.

Why? The clock is ticking guys and girls.
Clever people than me are thinking WW3 will kick off late Spring to Early Summer.
That’s only 75 days from today. Ouch!

CBRN survival for civilians is going to be hard.
It could be expensive to kit for and even then to no avail if things get totally out of hand so what I’m going to be ‘suggesting’ is a poor person’s view on things.

I’m no expert, never professed to be, and never shall be.
What I say should never be treated as Gospel, you need to check it out yourself BUT if I have said something REALLY stupid, please tell me!

Caution, Long Article.


  • Types of agents. Blister, nerve, blood agents, and incapacitating.
  • Delivery mechanisms,
    Low yield bombs, aerosols, sprayers, water and food contamination
  • Persistence,
    Low to high.
  • Observations.
    May or may not be visible, an odour, lighter or heavier than air.
  • Scope of damage.
    Depends on dispersal method, geography of site,
    Wind, general atmospherics and weather,
    Time of the day, week, or year.
  • Effects.
    As specified against substance and absorption route and exposure time.
  • Protection,
    Isolate, barriers, filters, limit movement and contact.
    Cover up skin, protect airways and eyes,
    No food or drink.
  • Decontamination,
    Possible if carried out quickly,
    Dangers of residue and the effects of heat on that residue.
    Disposal of contaminated material and victims
    Danger handling the contaminated
  • Treatment.
    Limited by material and the amount absorbed,
    May need specialist drugs and full symptom and body support.
  • Final Outcome.
    The attack is usually short-lived as is the aftermath.
    Long term care for the contaminated
    Many cadavers to deal with
    Long term contamination of soils, water sources, manufacturing.

List of Agents

  • Tear Gases.spray
    In the UK you’ll normally only see CS and OC (Pepper Spray)
    From the EU or US you might come across Mace (CN).
  • Mace acts like a mix of OC and CS gas.
    Remove contact lenses and contaminated clothing immediately.
    Flush contaminated area with large quantities of cool water or a diluted baking soda solution and expose the area to fresh air as soon as possible. Don’t rub your eyes.
  • Vomiting agents.
    Basically they cause sneezing, coughing, headache, salivation, and vomiting.
    Adamsite (DM), Diphenylchloroarsine (DA), and Diphenylcyanoarsine (DC)
    Treatment for DM in the eyes is to wash well with tepid water.
    Breathing difficulty may need oxygen and bagging.
    For skin troubles use calamine.
    Nothing found to treat DA & DC gases
  • Malodorants
    Israeli’s “SKUNK”.
    It smells like sewage and rotting substances.
    It also has high persistence especially on cloth and is hard to wash off.
  • Psycho Agents
    BZ (aka Buzz), SN (aka PCP), K aka LSD or Acid)
    All these agents produce stupor, confusion, hallucinations, plucking and disrobing.
    They need an antidote not readily available.
    All have long-lasting unpredictable effects.
  • Blister agents
    All 3 need to be washed off ASAP, Flush eyes DO NOT COVER but shade.
    If ingested drink milk, don’t vomit.
    HN1,2,and 3 (Nitrogen Based),
    Wash and Basic Support
    Mustard Gases Q,HD,T (Sulfur Based),
    Wash and Basic support
    Arsenics (ED,MD,PD,L aka Lewisite),
    Wash and Dimercaprol given by IM injection.
  • Blood agents
    Cyanide types CK, BAC, and SA
    Breathing the fumes?
    Adult 12.5 g of a 25% solution (50 mL of a 25% solution) of sodium thiosulfate intravenously over a period of 10 minutes.
    Treat with amyl
     nitrite, sodium nitrite. One ampule of amyl nitrite into a cloth until you can get sodium nitrite.
    Administer 300 mg of a 3% solution of sodium nitrite IV over 5 to 20 minutes.
  • Choking agents
    CL, PS, DP, and Phosgene (CG)
    Treatment is Oxygen. There is no antidote.
  • Nerve Agents
    Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Cyclosarin (GF),G, GV, and the V Range.
    The immediate treatment IV 2 mg atropine sulfate, 5 mg atropine sulfate for severe intoxication
    Diazepam 5 mg at 15 minute intervals up to a total of 15 mg.

PPE, Personal Protection Equipment.
Chemicals are absorbed through the skin, the eyes, by inhalation, or ingestion.
PPE is therefore using materials that are non porous, all covering, and disposable.
Suggestions. Wellington boots, full hooded Tyvek suits, nitrile rubber gloves, full mask respirators with the correct changeable filters installed.
All clothing joints sealed with fabric backed waterproof tape.

Good filtered EXTRACTION ventilation going the whole time.
Fully dressed. wearing respirators and gloves the whole time, a cool all over shower. Don’t use hair conditioner!!!!!!
Then strip, bag contaminated material, and dispose of it OUTSIDE THE SHELTER.
Shower (again, no hair conditioner) , dry yourself, and redress in dry clothing.

Finally change into new mask or at least change the filter bagging and disposing of the old out of the shelter.

First aid, blisters or chemical burns.
Do not burst blisters.
Flush well, do not apply creams or lotions, cover with dry sterile dressing,
Monitor for any increase of damage.

Establish a baseline once out of decontamination.
Carry out whole body checks and mental impairment regularly for 24 hours minimum.

The Dead.
Get them out of the shelter as soon as it is safe.
Cover the bodies with plastic sheeting, store away from accommodation.
Unless unused and still sealed, discard all that they had about them.

Associated Articles:-
cbrn and water

Biological (Bugs)

Which scares me more than the other three put together.
What are we talking about? “Illnesses caused by the deliberate release of dangerous bacteria or viruses or by biological toxins (e.g. ricin, found in castor oil beans
CDC produced a basic list
Cat A :-
Bacteria i.e. Anthrax, Plague, Tularemia
Viruses i.e. Smallpox, Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Hanta
Biotoxins i.e. Botulism
Cat B:-
Bacteria i.e. Brucellosis, Glanders, Melioidosis, Psittacosis
Food threats i.e. Salmonella, Ecoli
Water threats i.e. Cholera, Crypto, Giardia, legionnaires, Weils disease
Viruses i.e.Viral encephalitis, Rickettsia, Typhus, Norwalk
Biotoxins i.e. Epsilon, Ricin, Staphylococcal toxins

There’s just a few to think about isn’t there.
The problem:-
Nothing is instantaneous, all have an incubation time.
Giardia Symptoms usually begin 1 to 3 weeks after exposure and without treatment may last up to six weeks.
Hanta. 1 and 8 weeks after exposure before symptoms show.
Anthrax 1–6 days, but up to 42
Plague  1–7 days (usually 2–3 days)
Tularemia 1–21 days (avg 3–6)
Marburg VHF 4–21 days
Ebola (VHF) 4–21 days
Smallpox 7–17 days (avg 12)
Botulism 12 hours–5 days
Cholera 4 hours–5 days (usually 2–3 days)
Ricin 18–24 hours
My 30 days is looking VERY shaky.

They are colourless, odourless, tasteless, easily distributed and easily transmitted to others (touch, coughs, drinking, inhalation), water-borne ones are pretty robust and simple treatments like Chlorine in the water won’t stop some of them.

So the first you’ll know about it is when people start falling sick.

All you can do is isolate yourself from the infected and places they have recently visited. Apart from that, as impractical as it sounds, is to don as a minimum a FFP3/P100 face mask, protect your eyes with wrap-round glasses, and wear impervious clothing and medical gloves the whole time. Even then viruses are so small they can penetrate the tiniest bit of exposed skin!

So, as a defence to a biological attack, and to trigger off your self-defence plans, you need to know what is happening around you.
BUT, for the most part, government aren’t going to admit a thing until it is too late!

Inoculations are difficult to get to cover all these biological’s and some just haven’t got a vaccine or other remedy. Also remember that antibiotics only work on bacteria and NOT viruses.

You have only one real choice, isolation.
Remove yourself from public contact and wait till everyone dies or gets better, or hope that a vaccine or antibiotic is developed.
The problem with that is some survivors may develop into carriers. They may look fit but to touch then, or breathe in their breath, share their water or food, might be all it takes to infect you.

Getting the idea why I hate this form of contamination?
This section hasn’t got a happy ending to it I’m afraid.


Dirty bombs. More a weapon of mass disruption, the idea is to make an area unsafe to enter for a long time. How this is achieved is using IED’s to scatter radioactive material. The problem is knowing what has been used.

Industrial incidents. Discharge of radioactive material from facilities, or accidents.  This may include contamination of water courses and the water table and the public water supply. Airborne particles in smoke.

Immediate actions.
Put on FFP3/P100 face mask.
Cover up as much as possible and wear nitrile gloves.

Evacuate away from the accident site into the wind, never downwind.
If you can’t, shelter in place sealing the location as best you can.
If you are sheltering stay away from lower levels.
Look for internal rooms, mid level.,

Shut off any forced ventilation.
Listen for broadcast instructions.
Do not eat, drink, or smoke.
The container or material may be contaminated.

If you are evacuated, as part of a bomb scare, take personal belongings. If you are evacuated following a bombing, keep personal belongings to a minimum but NEVER leave your EDC behind.

As soon as possible show (no hair conditioner) and carry out an eye wash.

Dumping your bagged  clothing and ‘carry home baggage’ outside of your shelter.
Check your whole body for injuries.
Flush, clean and cover all cuts and scrapes.
With burns, do not burst blisters, do not use ointments or creams. Carry out regular checks on any injuries and to look for signs of new injury (burns)
The option of taking potassium iodide (Ki) to protect your thyroid won’t work on all radio-active material. There again (in my inexperienced eye), it wouldn’t hurt.

Wondering why no hair conditioner? Current thinking is that is designed to stay on the hair and could retain contaminates.

Nuclear (Crowd Pleasers)

And this is where I stop. For now.
Simply because I’ve lost my Grunts handbook.
When found I’ll carry on using my 1970’s, the cold war original NBC  handbook, I was issued with about surviving the not survivable.
Charcoal coated suits, the respirators that brought me out in a rash, and those lovely, dead sexy, massively oversized rubber boots.
(Running about in summer heat killing one of our unit).

Plague (Y-pestis).

WHO notes

Untreated plague has a high risk of mortality.
The incubation period of the bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague types ranges from 2-6 days

Bubonic Plague usually results from the bite of an infected flea or by introduction of contaminated fluid or tissue into an open wound.
After an incubation period of 2-6 days, there is acute onset of symptoms such as fever, headache, chills, and weakness.
It is also common to see gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea and vomiting.
About 24 hours after the start of these symptoms, swollen, extremely tender lymph nodes known as buboes, filled with multiplying Yersinia pestis, appear.
There buboes typically form from lymph nodes that were closest to the site of infection.
Left untreated, the bacteria can spread to other areas such as the bloodstream, causing secondary septicemic plague, or the lungs, causing secondary pneumonic plague

Septicemic Plague can either develop primarily, often through the introduction of contaminated fluid or tissue into an open wound, or secondarily as a result of untreated bubonic plague. There is a sudden onset of symptoms including fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting. Later on in the course of the disease, purpura, a rash caused by bleeding into the skin, and disseminated vascular coagulation can develop.
Tissue blackening and death, especially in the fingers, toes, and the nose, is also seen.

Pneumonic plague is a highly contagious form of the disease.
Primary pneumonic plague develops when a person inhales infectious droplets emitted by a pneumonic plague sufferer.
Secondary pneumonic plague can develop when untreated bubonic or septicemic plague spreads to the lungs.
Symptoms from this type of plague include fever, headache, weakness, and a developing pneumonia that heightens symptoms of cough, chest pain and shortness of breath. As the disease progresses, hemorrhages, necrosis of the tissue, and pulmonary abscesses are other common symptoms. In the end stages of untreated pneumonic plague, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and shock can sometimes be seen.

Early antibiotic treatment is essential.

It is a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccobacillus aka a bacteria
As such can be treated with antibiotics. (Link to CDC site)

My notes for personal storage.
DO NOT USE, go to (Link to CDC site) for detailed information.

( 1 g intramuscularly every 12 h) is the drug of choice.
5 mg/kg once daily, or 2 mg/kg loading
dose followed by 1.7 mg/kg every 8 hours
100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily
500 to 750 mg twice daily
500 mg once daily
400 mg once daily

All for a minimum of 14 days.
Transmitted by fleas, carried by body fluids, pest urine / feces,  and exposure to the infected exhaled breath. Use barrier nursing and FFP3 / P100 quality masks. USE eye protection.